Romania

Last updated on: 7 March 2016

Criminalisation of HIV transmission/exposure

Romania
Whether Specific law enacted: 
Yes
Number of people prosecuted: 
-
Number of people convicted: 
-
Applicable law: 

2014 update

Criminal code (Entered into force in 2014) 
Art. 354: transmission of AIDS

(1) The transmission by any means, acquired immune deficiency syndrome - AIDS - by a person who knows that suffer from this disease shall be punished with imprisonment from 3 to 10 years.

(2) The transmission by any means, acquired immune deficiency syndrome - AIDS - by a person other than as provided in par. (1) shall be punished with imprisonment from 5 to 12 years.

(3) If the acts referred to in paragraph. (1) and paragraph. (2) to death of the victim, the penalty is imprisonment from 7-15 years.

(4) When the deed in para. (2) has been committed by negligence, the penalty is imprisonment from 6 months to 3 years, and if caused the death of the victim, the penalty is imprisonment from 2 to 7 years.

(5) The attempt to offenses under par. (1) and paragraph. (2) shall be punished. 

Of note the translation in (4) above  - 'negligence' is not a precise translation of the origianl 'culpa' in Romanian - which can in Romanaia be  negligence and/or recklessmess depending on the situation  see wikkipedia for a definition of the termshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culpability):"> here 

The orginal Romanian is below :

Criminal code (entered into force din 2014)
Art. 354: Transmiterea sindromului imunodeficitar dobândit

(1)Transmiterea, prin orice mijloace, a sindromului imunodeficitar dobândit - SIDA - de către o persoană care ştie că suferă de această boală se pedepseşte cu închisoarea de la 3 la 10 ani.

(2)Transmiterea, prin orice mijloace, a sindromului imunodeficitar dobândit - SIDA - de către o altă persoană decât cea prevăzută în alin. (1) se pedepseşte cu închisoarea de la 5 la 12 ani.

(3)Dacă prin faptele prevăzute în alin. (1) şi alin. (2) s-a produs moartea victimei, pedeapsa este închisoarea de la 7 la 15 ani.

(4)Când fapta prevăzută în alin. (2) a fost săvârşită din culpă, pedeapsa este închisoarea de la 6 luni la 3 ani, iar dacă a cauzat moartea victimei, pedeapsa este închisoarea de la 2 la 7 ani.

(5)Tentativa la infracţiunile prevăzute în alin. (1) şi alin. (2) se pedepseşte.

 

Former criminal code (was reppealed in 2014)
Art. 309: Contaminarea venerică şi transmiterea sindromului imunodeficitar dobândit
(2) Transmiterea sindromului imunodeficitar dobândit - SIDA - de către o persoană care ştie că suferă de această boală se pedepseşte cu închisoare de la 5 la 15 ani.

Former criminal code (was repealed in  2014) 

Art. 309: venereal contamination and transmission of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 
(2) transmission of AIDS - AIDS - by a person who knows that suffer from this disease is punishable by imprisonment from 5 to 15 years.

 

 

Article 309, paragraph 2, of the Romanian Penal Code.

Key wording in the law: 

The new 2014 wording in English and Romanian is above

An unofficial translation of the earlier law  was provided by by Sens Positive: “Transmission of a venereal disease by sexual intercourse, by sex between same-sex persons or acts of sexual perversion by a person who knows they suffer from such disease shall be punished with imprisonment for 1-5 years. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome transmission - AIDS - by a person who knows they are suffering from this disease is punishable by imprisonment for 5-15 years. If the offense results in death of the victim, the punishment is imprisonment from 7 to 15 years."

Key Cases: 

No cases known 

Discussion: 

According to an illuminating blog post by Sens Positive, Romania's "vague and meaningless" HIV-specific criminal statute was implemented on 1 October 2011. 

Survey respondents/Organisations working on HIV and the Law: 

The Alaturi de Voi Romania Foundation Closer to You has a website (in both Romanian & English Languages) offering general information about their work to support people living with HIV

Organizations working on HIV and the Law: Sens Positive

 

We are also indebted to Dana Ududec - Human Rights Lawyer in Romania -  who has provided us with the 2014 information on the new law.

Further reading: 

Correspondence from individual(s) and organisation(s) who may be able to clarify the situation concerning the number of prosecutions, convictions and any further reading about HIV and the Romanian Penal Code is welcome. You can contact us using the link at the end of this page.

Other laws and policies with an impact on responses to HIV

Laws and regulations relating to entry, stay or residence in the country: 

There are no specific entry or residence regulations for people with HIV/AIDS. No HIV test result is required when entering the country. A known HIV infection will not lead to deportation or the termination of a person's stay.

Antiretroviral medication for personal use can be carried.

For updated information, please go to: www.hivrestrictions.org

Laws relating to same sex, sexual relations: 

Male to Male relationships: Legal

Punishments for male to male relationships:  No law

Female to Female Relationships: Legal

Age of consent:  Equal for heterosexuals and homosexuals

Marriage and Substitutes for Marriage: No law

For updated information, please go to: http://ilga.org