Switzerland

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Global advocacy highlights against HIV criminalisation presented at AIDS 2016

22 Jul 2016
Yesterday, at the International AIDS Conference in Durban, the HIV Justice Network and GNP+ presented highlights relating to global advocacy against HIV criminalisation based on updated research from our Advancing HIV Justice 2 report. Advancing HIV Justice: Building momentum in … More

Switzerland: Two (alleged) HIV transmission convictions this month despite many positive changes in law

22 Feb 2016
On January 1st 2016, Switzerland’s Epidemics Act 2013 finally came into effect, which repeals and replaces the old Epidemics Act and in doing so, changes Article 231 of the Swiss Penal Code, which in the past has been used to … More

Switzerland: New handbook for parliamentarians on effective HIV laws includes case study and interview with Green MP Alec von Graffenried

04 Feb 2014
A new publication from the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), written by Veronica Oakeshott, is an excellent new resource to help inform advocacy efforts to remove punitive laws and policies that impede the HIV response. Aimed … More

EATG seeks to ensure that Europe-wide standards of up-to-date scientific evidence limit overly broad HIV criminalisation

28 Oct 2013
EATG’s new position paper on prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure, exposure and/or transmission published last week recommends that the criminal law should only be used in extremely rare and unusual cases where HIV is maliciously and intentionally transmitted and that Europe-wide … More

Switzerland: Swiss Federal Supreme Court rules that criminal HIV exposure or transmission is no longer necessarily a serious assault

05 Apr 2013
The Swiss Federal Supreme Court has ruled that HIV infection may no longer be automatically considered a serious assault, due to improved outcomes in life-expectancy on antiretroviral therapy. A news article on the ruling, featuring Groupe sida Genève‘s spokesperson, Deborah … More

Switzerland: New Law on Epidemics delayed due to referendum, change in HIV law still likely

24 Jan 2013
The road to law reform can be long and rocky, especially in a direct democracy like Switzerland. The proposed changes (for the better) to a law that has been used to prosecute people with HIV for potential exposure even when … More

Video: Seminar on HIV Criminalisation, Berlin, 20 September 2012 (EATG/DAH/IPPF/HIV in Europe)

23 Oct 2012
This international conference on the criminalisation of HIV non-disclosure, potential or perceived HIV exposure and non-intentional HIV transmission took place at the Rotes Rathaus in Berlin on 20th September 2012. HIV advocates, law and human rights experts and other concerned … More

Switzerland: New Law on Epidemics only criminalising intentional transmission passed in lower house

09 Mar 2012
In a remarkable turns of events in the Swiss Federal Assembly’s National Council (lower house) yesterday, the new, revised Law on Epidemics was passed with a last minute amendment by Green MP Alec von Graffenried that only criminalises the intentional … More

Switzerland: Government ignores expert recommendation to decriminalise non-intentional HIV exposure and transmission

08 Dec 2010
The Swiss Government has ignored expert recommendations to decriminalise everything but intentional HIV exposure or transmission following a consultation on changing Article 231 of the Swiss Penal Code, according to a strongly worded press release from Groupe sida Genève issued … More

Global: AIDS 2010 round-up part 2: Posters

19 Aug 2010
This selection of posters presented in Vienna follows up from my previous AIDS 2010 posting on the sessions, meetings and media reporting that took place during last month’s XVIII International AIDS Conference.  I’ll be a highlighting a few others in … More

Switzerland: New study examines every criminal prosecution; finds Swiss law discriminatory

24 Sep 2009
A new and important study of criminal HIV exposure and transmission cases in Switzerland was published yesterday. Update: An English-language version of the Swiss AIDS Federation’s six page summary is now available. Download the pdf here. With the support of … More

Switzerland: Federal Court confirms Geneva HIV exposure acquittal, but does not mention viral load (updated)

08 Jul 2009
UPDATE July 8th 2009 The Federal Court has now confirmed the recent HIV exposure acquital in Geneva, but shied away from explicitly discussing the link between an undetectable viral load and risk of transmission. In effect: they lacked the courage … More

Switzerland: Geneva Court of Justice accepts ‘Swiss statement’, quashes HIV exposure conviction

25 Feb 2009
In the first ruling of its kind in the world, a court in Geneva, Switzerland, has quashed the 18 month prison sentence of a young HIV-positive man previously convicted of HIV exposure, after accepting that the risk of sexual HIV … More

Switzerland: Federal Court rules that undiagnosed criminally liable for HIV transmission

18 Jul 2008
Switzerland’s highest court – the Federal Court in Lausanne – has ruled that a man who was unaware of his infection is still criminally liable for infecting a woman with HIV. In effect, the court has ruled that anyone who … More

Swiss statement on sexual HIV transmission was inspired by HIV exposure prosecutions.

29 Feb 2008
Very interesting interview on aidsmeds.com with Dr Bernard Hirschel, of the University of Geneva, the lead author of the controversial Swiss consensus statement which said that successful treated individuals with an undetectable viral load for at least six months and … More

Last reviewed 01 June 2017

Country overview

Until Article 231 of the Swiss Penal Code: Spreading of human diseases was revised in January 2016, this non-HIV-specific law had been used exclusively to prosecute people living with HIV who had condomless sex, regardless of risk. Disclosure and/or consent by a partner was not a defence. It was often been used together with Article 122: Grievous bodily harm). There have been at least 40, between 1990 and 2013, and following a gap, two convictions took place in February 2016 under Article 122.

Specific laws

Specific law enacted No

Specific law criminalising HIV non disclosure, exposure, or transmission: No

Prosecuted using non-HIV specific laws: Yes

Prosecuted using both specific and non specific laws: No

Is non-disclosure actionable: No

Is exposure actionable: No

Is transmission actionable: No

Prosecutions

Number of prosecutions 42

At least 40, between 1990 and 2013. Following a gap, two convictions took place in February 2016 under Article 122. Bernard EJ. Switzerland: Two (alleged) HIV transmission convictions this month despite many positive changes in law. HIV Justice Network, 22 February 2016. http://www.hivjustice.net/news/switzerland-two-alleged-hiv-transmission-convictions-this-month-despite-many-positive-changes-in-law

Convictions

Number of convictions 29

Minimum, 1 acquittal April 2013. At least 40, between 1990 and 2013. Following a gap, two convictions took place in February 2016 under Article 122. Bernard EJ. Switzerland: Two (alleged) HIV transmission convictions this month despite many positive changes in law. HIV Justice Network, 22 February 2016. http://www.hivjustice.net/news/switzerland-two-alleged-hiv-transmission-convictions-this-month-despite-many-positive-changes-in-law

Laws

Applicable laws

Schweizerisches Strafgesetzbuch. vom 21. Dezember 1937 (Stand am 1. Juli 2016). https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/19370083/index.html#index1

Code pénal suisse du 21 décembre 1937 (Etat le 1er juillet 2016). https://www.admin.ch/opc/fr/classified-compilation/19370083/201607010000/311.0.pdf

Codice penale svizzero. del 21 dicembre 1937 (Stato 1° luglio 2016). https://www.admin.ch/opc/it/classified-compilation/19370083/index.html

Swiss Criminal Code of 21 December 1937 (Status as of 1 July 2016). English is not an official language of the Swiss Confederation. This translation is provided for information purposes only and has no legal force. https://www.admin.ch/opc/en/classified-compilation/19370083/index.html

Applicable key wording

Schweizerisches Strafgesetzbuch. vom 21. Dezember 1937 (Stand am 1. Juli 2016)

Art. 122 Schwere Körperverletzung

Wer vorsätzlich einen Menschen lebensgefährlich verletzt, wer vorsätzlich den Körper, ein wichtiges Organ oder Glied eines Menschen verstümmelt oder ein wichtiges Organ oder Glied unbrauchbar macht, einen Menschen bleibend arbeitsunfähig, gebrechlich oder geisteskrank macht, das Gesicht eines Menschen arg und bleibend entstellt, wer vorsätzlich eine andere schwere Schädigung des Körpers oder der körperlichen oder geistigen Gesundheit eines Menschen verursacht, wird mit Freiheitsstrafe bis zu zehn Jahren oder Geldstrafe nicht unter 180 Tagessätzen bestraft.

Art. 231 Verbreiten menschlicher Krankheiten

Wer aus gemeiner Gesinnung eine gefährliche übertragbare menschliche Krankheit verbreitet, wird mit Freiheitsstrafe von einem bis zu fünf Jahren bestraft.

 

Code pénal suisse du 21 décembre 1937 (Etat le 1er juillet 2016). https://www.admin.ch/opc/fr/classified-compilation/19370083/201607010000/311.0.pdf

 

Art. 122 Lésions corporelles graves

Celui qui, intentionnellement,aura blessé une personne de façon à mettre sa vie en danger, celui qui, intentionnellement, aura mutilé le corps d’une personne, un de ses membres ou un de ses organes importants ou causé à une personne une incapacité de travail, une infirmité ou une maladie mentale permanentes, ou aura défiguré une personne d’une façon grave et permanente, celui qui, intentionnellement, aura fait subir à une personne toute autre atteinte grave à l’intégrité corporelle ou à la santé physique ou mentale, sera puni d’une peine privative de liberté de dix ans au plus ou d’une peine pécuniaire de 180 jours-amende au moins.

 Art. 231 Propagation d’une maladie de l’homme

Celui qui, par bassesse de caractère, aura propagé une maladie de l’homme dangereuse et transmissible sera puni d’une peine privative de liberté d’un an au moins et de cinq ans au plus.

 

Codice penale svizzero. del 21 dicembre 1937 (Stato 1° luglio 2016).

https://www.admin.ch/opc/it/classified-compilation/19370083/index.html

 

Art. 122 Lesioni personali gravi

Chiunque intenzionalmente ferisce una persona mettendone in pericolo la vita, chiunque intenzionalmente mutila il corpo, un organo o arto importante di una persona, o le produce la perdita dell’uso di un tale organo o arto, o le cagiona permanentemente incapacità al lavoro, infermità o malattia mentale, o le sfregia in modo grave e permanente il viso, chiunque intenzionalmente cagiona un altro grave danno al corpo od alla salute fisica o mentale di una persona, è punito con una pena detentiva sino a dieci anni o con una pena pecuniaria non inferiore a 180 aliquote giornaliere.

 Art. 231 Propagazione di malattie dell'essere umano

Chiunque con animo abietto propaga una malattia dell'essere umano pericolosa e trasmissibile è punito con una pena detentiva da uno a cinque anni.

 

Swiss Criminal Code of 21 December 1937 (Status as of 1 July 2016). English is not an official language of the Swiss Confederation. This translation is provided for information purposes only and has no legal force. https://www.admin.ch/opc/en/classified-compilation/19370083/index.html

 Art. 122 Serious assault

Any person who intentionally inflicts a life-threatening injury on another, any person who intentionally inflicts serious injury on the person, or on an important organ or limb of another, makes an important organ or limb unusable, makes another permanently unfit for work, infirm or mentally ill, or who disfigures the face of another badly and permanently, any person who intentionally causes any other serious damage to the person or to the physical or mental health of another, is liable to a custodial sentence not exceeding ten years or to a monetary penalty of not less than 180 daily penalty units.

 Art. 231 Transmission of human diseases

1. Any person who maliciously transmits a dangerous communicable human disease is liable to a custodial sentence of from one to five years.

See also: Article 123 Common assault: Paragraph 2 covers the use of poison or weapons, assault on persons in the care of the accused or unable to defend themselves and finally assault on spouses, registered partners or cohabitating partners.  

Discussion

Law reform in Switzerland has been a long road. Sustained efforts between clinicians, HIV NGOs and key parliamentarians since 2007 resulted in a number of significant outcomes, starting with the Swiss statement (2008) which led to courts recognising that clinical HIV suppression through antiretroviral therapy is a defence to condomless sex. Courts also recognised that HIV is no longer necessarily a serious disease (2013).

 In March 2012, the Swiss Federal Assembly's National Council (lower house) revisions to the Law on Epidemics was passed with a last minute amendment by Green MP Alec von Graffenried that only criminalises the intentional spread of a communicable disease. See Further reading: Switzerland: New Law on Epidemics only criminalising intentional transmission passed in lower house. Friday, 9 March 2012. Criminal HIV Transmission Blog. The long Law on Epidemics revision process finally resulted in a new law, which came into effect in January 2016 that only criminalises malicious, intentional transmission, Article 231, Swiss Criminal Code of 21 December 1937 (Status as of 1 July 2016). However, following a gap, two convictions took place in February 2016 under Article 122.

Further reading

Edwin J Bernard and Sally Cameron. Advancing HIV Justice 2: Building momentum in global advocacy against HIV criminalisation. HIV Justice Network and GNP+. Brighton/Amsterdam, April 2016. http://www.hivjustice.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/AHJ2.final2_.10May2016.pdf

Latest cases and news can be found at: http://www.hivjustice.net/site/news/?country=214&from-month=-1&from-year=-1&to-month=-1&to-year=-1

Schweizerisches Strafgesetzbuch. vom 21. Dezember 1937 (Stand am 1. Juli 2016). https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/19370083/index.html#index1

Code pénal suisse du 21 décembre 1937 (Etat le 1er juillet 2016). https://www.admin.ch/opc/fr/classified-compilation/19370083/201607010000/311.0.pdf

Codice penale svizzero. del 21 dicembre 1937 (Stato 1° luglio 2016). https://www.admin.ch/opc/it/classified-compilation/19370083/index.html

Swiss Criminal Code of 21 December 1937 (Status as of 1 July 2016). English is not an official language of the Swiss Confederation. This translation is provided for information purposes only and has no legal force. https://www.admin.ch/opc/en/classified-compilation/19370083/index.html

University of Applied Sciences Northwest Switzerland, AIDS-Hilfe Schweiz and Zürcher Hochschulefür Angewandte Wissenschaften (ZHAW) database of all known HIV-related criminal cases in Switzerland. http://www.hivlaw.ch

Il transmet le virus VIH: acquitté. Procès: Le tribunal de Lausanne a acquitté un homme qui a contaminé son épouse car la loi ne permet plus de condamner la négligence. Georges-Marie Bécherraz, 24 Heures, 09.05.2016. http://www.24heures.ch/vaud-regions/lausanne-region/impuni-transmission-virus-vih/story/12815970

Edwin J Bernard (February 22, 2016). Switzerland: Two (alleged) HIV transmission convictions this month despite many positive changes in law. http://www.hivjustice.net/news/switzerland-two-alleged-hiv-transmission-convictions-this-month-despite-many-positive-changes-in-law/

Bernard EJ. Switzerland: New handbook for parliamentarians on effective HIV laws includes case study and interview with Green MP Alec von Graffenried. HIV Justice Network, 4 February 2014. http://www.hivjustice.net/news/switzerland-new-handbook-for-parliamentarians-on-effective-hiv-laws-includes-case-study-and-interview-with-green-mp-alec-von-graffenreid

HJN (16 December 2013). Switzerland: How effective HIV treatment has impacted upon the criminalisation of HIV exposure. http://www.hivjustice.net/storify/switzerland-how-effective-hiv-treatment-has-impacted-upon-the-criminalisation-of-hiv-exposure/

Edwin J Bernard (5 April 2013). Switzerland: Swiss Federal Supreme Court rules that criminal HIV exposure or transmission is no longer necessarily a serious assault. http://www.hivjustice.net/news/switzerland-swiss-federal-supreme-court-rules-that-criminal-hiv-exposure-or-transmission-is-no-longer-necessarily-a-serious-assault/

Zwei Jahre Haft wegen Ansteckung mit Aids. Stefan Hohler, Polizeireporter, Tages Anzieger. 23.03.2012. http://www.tagesanzeiger.ch/zuerich/region/Zwei-Jahre-Haft-wegen-Ansteckung-mit-Aids/story/30891523

Infizierte Frau beharrt nicht auf Kondomgebrauch – bedingte Freiheitsstrafe. HIV-Übertragung bestraft. Brigitte Hürlimann, Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 24.3.2012. http://www.nzz.ch/hiv-uebertragung-bestraft-1.16048678

Switzerland: New Law on Epidemics only criminalising intentional transmission passed in lower house. Friday, 9 March 2012. Criminal HIV Transmission Blog. http://criminalhivtransmission.blogspot.ch/2012/03/switzerland-new-law-on-epidemics-only.html

Kurt Pärli and  Peter Mösch Payot (2009). Strafrechtlicher Umgang bei HIV/Aids in der Schweiz im Lichte der Anliegen der HIV/Aids-Prävention: Status quo, Reflexion, Folgerungen. NF 13DPD3-118107/1 Schlussbericht an den Schweizerischen Nationalfonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen. Forschung Kurt Pärli, Prof. (FH) Dr. iur. Peter Moesch Payot, lic.iur. LL.M. Studentische Mitarbeiter/innen: Melanie Studer, Stud. Wirtschaftsrecht, ZHAW Nina Hänsli, Stud. Wirtschaftsrecht, ZHAW Daniel Goldberg, Stud. Soziale Arbeit, FHNW. Bern, Olten und Winterthur, 31.3.2009. http://www.fhnw.ch/ppt/content/prj/s226-0019/schlussbericht

Switzerland: Federal Court rules that undiagnosed criminally liable for HIV transmission. Criminal HIV Transmission Blog. Friday, 18 July 2008. http://criminalhivtransmission.blogspot.ch/2008/07/switzerland-federal-court-rules-that.html

Switzerland: Federal Court confirms Geneva HIV exposure acquittal, but does not mention viral load (updated). Wednesday, 8 July 2009. Criminal HIV Transmission Blog. http://criminalhivtransmission.blogspot.ch/2009/07/switzerland-federal-court-likely-to.html

 

Cases

Overview

Revision of jurisprudence: Case 6B_337/2012: The Swiss Federal Supreme Court has ruled that HIV infection may no longer be automatically considered a serious assault, due to improved outcomes in life-expectancy due to antiretroviral therapy. Case 6B_337/2012 was heard on 19th March 2013 and published on 3rd April 2013. The Swiss Federal Supreme Court revisited its long standing jurisprudence on the severity of an HIV infection. Since 1999 (BGE 116 IV 125), any transmission or attempted transmission of HIV has been deemed to inflict or attempt to inflict severe harm and qualifies thus as an offence under Article 122 of the Swiss Criminal Code relating to serious assault.

The appellant had appealed his conviction by the Superior Court of the Canton of Zurich under both Article 122 and Article 231 of the criminal code pertaining to transmission of human diseases for transmitting HIV to a sexual partner. The Superior Court had imposed a 30 month partially suspended custodial sentence. In the third part of his appeal, the appellant objected to the qualification of transmission of HIV as a serious injury on the grounds that, although still an incurable chronic medical condition, HIV infection is well managed thanks to current medical treatment. Life expectancy of individuals living with HIV is now nearly equal to those of persons not infected and as a result of this progress transmission should only qualify as common assault under Article 123 of the criminal code.

The Federal Court agreed with the appellant to the extent that recent scientific progress and current treatment options lead to the conclusion that HIV infection does not necessarily constitute a serious threat to life. The Court nevertheless held that HIV infection still causes complex and life-long physiological and psychological changes which in some cases may lead to serious or even life threatening harm.  The ruling in effect overruled the Federal Court’s own jurisprudence that held that HIV infection is a serious injury that qualifies as serious assault and allows a finding of serious assault only if the facts of the case warrant. It thus imposes a duty on lower courts to determine in every case brought before them whether the transmission or attempted transmission qualifies as common assault under Article 123 or rather as serious assault under Article 122 of the criminal code.

Serious assault is punishable with a custodial sentence not exceeding 10 years, whereas the maximum sentence for common assault is 3 years. The courts reversal will certainly limit some sentences to the maximum of 3 years for common assault whereas the average sentence for HIV transmission or attempted transmission had previously varied from 2 to 4 years in cases where Articles 122 and 231 were applied concurrently.

As opposed to serious assault which is prosecuted ex officio (without complaint), common assault is prosecuted ex officio only for those exceptions provided in paragraph 2 of Article 123 that cover use of poison or weapons, assault on persons in the care of the accused or unable to defend themselves and finally assault on spouses, registered partners or cohabitating partners.  

The Federal Court rejected the appellant’s other contentions that the lower court had arbitrarily rejected the appellant’s defence invoking the victim’s consent to unprotected sexual relations as well as that the Court had erred in determining that the appellant was indeed the person who infected the victim. The Court did not follow the appellant’s argument there was sufficient doubt as to the victim’s testimony to benefit the accused. 

The case was remanded to the Superior Court for a fresh determination whether the conduct in question may be qualified as common or serious assault. 

See Further reading: Edwin J Bernard (5 April 2013). Switzerland: Swiss Federal Supreme Court rules that criminal HIV exposure or transmission is no longer necessarily a serious assault.

In February 2009, in the first ruling of its kind in the world, the Geneva Court of Justice quashed an 18-month prison sentence given to a 34-year-old HIV-positive African migrant who was convicted of HIV exposure by a lower court in December 2008, after accepting expert testimony from Professor Bernard Hirschel – one of the authors of the Swiss Federal Commission for HIV/AIDS consensus statement on the effect of treatment on transmission – that his risk of HIV exposure during unprotected vaginal sex whilst on effective antiretroviral treatment was so low as to be purely hypothethical.  The deputy prosecutor himself welcomed the acquittal, stating: "One should not convict people for hypothetical risks." In July 2009, the Federal Court in Lausanne confirmed the acquittal, but shied away from explicitly discussing the link between an undetectable viral load and risk of transmission, effectively lacking the courage to change the law on HIV exposure throughout Switzerland. See Further reading: Switzerland: Federal Court confirms Geneva HIV exposure acquittal, but does not mention viral load (updated). Criminal HIV Transmission Blog. Wednesday, 8 July 2009.

In July 2008, Switzerland's highest court - the Federal Court in Lausanne - ruled that a man who was unaware of his infection at the time his female partner acquired HIV was still criminally liable for her infection because he should have made her aware of his prior 'risky' sexual history. See Further reading: Switzerland: Federal Court rules that undiagnosed criminally liable for HIV transmission. Criminal HIV Transmission Blog. Friday, 18 July 2008.

 Other Cases:

An extensive 2009 study of all HIV-related criminal cases in Switzerland between 1990 and 2009 found:

·         39 individual cases dealt with in 51 separate cantonal (lower and higher) and federal court hearings.  There were convictions in 26 cases.

·         3 cases did not involve sex. One case involved a doctor who disclosed the HIV-positive status of one of his patients; another case involved the Red Cross and contaminated blood; and the third one involved biting.

·         36 cases involved sex - 31 heterosexual sex, and five sex between men. All but three of these 36 sexual cases involved consensual sex (as opposed to rape or sexual assault). In more than half of the convictions there was no alleged HIV transmission.

·         In 21 cases, § 231 (spreading of dangerous diseases) was used. This law does not allow for a disclosure defence. 

·         Most prison sentences ranged between 18 months and 4 years, plus a fine of up to CHF 80,000 as compensation to the 'victims'.  The report authors point out that these sentences are longer than for other (non-HIV-related) 'crimes' charged under either §122 and/or §231.

·         Of the 27 accused where country of origin was known, 11 were born in African countries; 9 were born in Switzerland; 4 were born elsewhere in Europe; 2 were born in Asia and the near East; and one was born in the United States.

See Further reading: Kurt Pärli and  Peter Mösch Payot (2009). Strafrechtlicher Umgang bei HIV/Aids in der Schweiz im Lichte der Anliegen der HIV/Aids-Prävention: Status quo, Reflexion, Folgerungen

Since 2009, respondents were aware of several ongoing cases (and possibly convictions that are unreported) with a further conviction (March 2012) which was reported in the media. In this case, a higher court, following an appeal, revisited the original sentence (3 years, two suspended) handed down to a woman living with HIV who was originally convicted of infecting two men while she was still undiagnosed. The higher court agreed that both men were likely infected prior to the woman's own diagnosis, but still gave her a 2 year suspended sentence because she continued to have unprotected sex with them without disclosing. This despite her testimony that she had asked them to use condoms but they refused.

See Further reading:

1.      Zwei Jahre Haft wegen Ansteckung mit Aids. Stefan Hohler, Polizeireporter, Tages Anzieger. 23.03.2012.

2.      Infizierte Frau beharrt nicht auf Kondomgebrauch – bedingte Freiheitsstrafe. HIV-Übertragung bestraft. Brigitte Hürlimann, Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 24.3.2012.

Following a gap, two convictions took place in February 2016 under Article 122. See Further reading: Bernard EJ. Switzerland: Two (alleged) HIV transmission convictions this month despite many positive changes in law. HIV Justice Network, 22 February 2016. 

Last reviewed 01 June 2017

Last reviewed 01 June 2017

Last reviewed 01 June 2017