Turkmenistan

Last reviewed 01 June 2017

Country overview

Article 119 of Turkmenistan's Criminal Code, enacted in 1998 and adopted in 2001, is a specific provision on “transmission of the AIDS disease”. It states that “knowing exposure to AIDS” is an offence punishable by up to three years in prison; in cases of actual transmission, the penalty is up to five years’ imprisonment. HIV transmission in relation to two or more persons or a minor carries a penalty of up to eight years’ imprisonment. HIV transmission as a result of medical negligence carries a penalty of up to five years’ imprisonment and suspension of the right to practise in the person’s profession for up to three years. Article 117 criminalises knowingly transmitting an STI, which is punishable by a fine or corrective works or imprisonment for up to two years.

Besides, Turkmenistan required compulsory HIV testing for young people before marriage. Non-disclosure of contacts and source of infection and those who contacted the person by people with diagnosed STIs is an administrative offense.

There are no reports of prosecutions.

Specific laws

Specific law enacted Yes

Specific law criminalising HIV non disclosure, exposure, or transmission: Yes

Prosecuted using non-HIV specific laws: No

Prosecuted using both specific and non specific laws: No

Is non-disclosure actionable: No

Is exposure actionable: No

Is transmission actionable: No

Laws

Applicable laws

The Criminal Code of Turkmenistan, 1998 as amended to include HIV and adopted on 7 July 2001.

Article 119. Infection with AIDS

This is an HIV-specific law. It is stipulated in the text of the article, that this is about AIDS exposure and transmission (not HIV).
Both exposure and transmission are subject to prosecution.
Sentences range from imprisonment  through to 8 years.

In April, 2016, Turkmenistan has passed a law under which all people seeking a marriage license must be tested for HIV. The new law also requires HIV tests for anyone suspected of using narcotics, foreigners seeking work visas, prisoners, and blood donors.

Source: http://www.rferl.org/a/turkmenistan-aids-hiv-test-marriage-license/27658722.html

Applicable key wording

Article 119. Infection with AIDS

(1) Knowingly placing another person in danger of contracting AIDS disease, shall be punished by imprisonment for a term up to three years.

(2) Infection of another person with AIDS by a person who knew that he/she had this disease, shall be punished by imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years.

(3) Acts, stipulated by part two of this article, committed against two or more persons or a minor shall be punished by imprisonment for a term not exceeding eight years.

(4) Infection of another person with AIDS disease due to improper performance of medical or pharmaceutical workers of their professional duties, shall be punished by imprisonment for a term up to five years with disqualification to hold certain positions or engage in certain activities for up to three years or without it.

In Russian: Статья 119. Заражение заболеванием СПИД

(1) Заведомое поставление другого лица в опасность заражения заболеванием СПИД, наказывается лишением свободы на срок до трёх лет.

(2) Заражение другого лица заболеванием СПИД лицом, знавшим о наличии у него этой болезни, наказывается лишением свободы на срок до пяти лет.

(3) Деяния, предусмотренные частью второй настоящей статьи, совершённые в отношении двух или более лиц либо несовершеннолетнего, наказываются лишением свободы на срок до восьми лет.

(4) Заражение другого лица заболеванием СПИД вследствие ненадлежащего выполнения медицинским или фармацевтическим работником своих профессиональных обязанностей, наказывается лишением свободы на срок до пяти лет с лишением права занимать определённые должности или заниматься определённой деятельностью на срок до трёх лет или без такового. 

Discussion

From the response received, it would appear that the Turkmenistan Law mentioned above determines only the general principles of government policy in the following areas:

  • [Its] fight with the infection;
  • State guarantees for diagnostics;
  • Treatment and prevention;
  • Measures of social protection for HIV infected persons and their families.
  • The Law also envisages the right of the citizens of Turkmenistan, foreign citizens and stateless persons living or staying on the territory of Turkmenistan to voluntary, confidential, anonymous examination and detection of human immunodeficiency virus at the public health-care institutions of Turkmenistan.

Although there are no known prosecutions or convictions for the transmission of, or exposure to HIV, it is thought that intentional transmission is also a criminal act that could be prosecuted.

Заражение другого лица венерической болезнью лицом, знавшим о наличии у него этой болез- ни, является уголовным преступлением и наказывается штрафом или исправительными работами или лишением свободы на срок до двух лет.1154 Эксперты отметили, что данные положения об от- ветственности не работают в связи с тем, что обследование и лечение ИППП является платным, и правоохранительным органам приходится прилагать усилия, чтобы заставить подозреваемых оплатить расходы по освидетельствованию и лечению. Уголовный Кодекс Туркменистана содер- жит положение о “заражении заболеванием СПИД”. Заведомое “поставление другого лица в опас- ность заражения” заболеванием СПИД наказывается лишением свободы на срок до трех лет, в случаях заражения срок лишения свободы увеличивается до пяти лет.1155 Заражение заболеванием СПИД двух или более лиц либо несовершеннолетнего наказываются лишением свободы на срок до восьми лет. Заражение другого лица заболеванием СПИД вследствие ненадлежащего выпол- нения медицинским или фармацевтическим работником своих профессиональных обязанностей наказывается лишением свободы на срок до пяти лет с лишением права заниматься определенной деятельностью на срок до трех лет. ЮНЕЙДС не рекомендует так широко использовать практику криминализации заражения или поставления другого лица в опасность заражения ВИЧ.

Infection of another person with a venereal disease by a person who knew that he had this illness is a criminal offense and is punishable by a fine or by corrective labor or imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years. Experts pointed out that the provisions on the responsibility do not work due that the examination and treatment of STI should be paid, and law enforcement agencies have to make an effort to force suspects to pay the costs of examination and treatment. Of the Criminal Code contains a provision on "AIDS infection disease." Knowingly "putting another person at risk of infection," AIDS is punishable by imprisonment for up to three years, in cases of multiple transmissions increases the term of imprisonment up to five years. AIDS transmission two or more persons or a minor shall be punished by imprisonment for up to eight years. Infection of another person AIDS disease due to improper tion performed medical or pharmaceutical workers of their professional duties is punishable by imprisonment for up to five years with deprivation of the right to engage in certain activities for up to three years.

Source: http://www.unodc.org/documents/centralasia/Accessibility_of_HIV_prevention_treatment_and_care_servic... 

Cases

Overview

In 2002, Turkmenistan's Health Ministry claimed the country had only two cases of HIV and that both patients had been infected outside the Central Asian state. Although Turkmenistan is a country with a low level of HIV/AIDS (one case of HIV reported in 2004), the government recognizes that it must remain vigilant if it is to protect the country from becoming yet another casualty of this illness. Still, according to other sources, in country there were last reported 200 cases of HIV as of 2007, and the latest data on new cases are 0 since that time in Turkmenistan. WHO Europe reports  UNAIDS reports the number of people living with HIV as N/A in 2015.

According to WHO, by the end of 2011, Turkmen authorities had reported a cumulative total of just two HIV cases, one male and one female, to the WHO Regional Office for Europe and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), one of whom developed AIDS and died. Six public health facilities offer HIV testing and counselling services. Almost no other national data are available. A leading at- risk population is thought to be people who inject drugs, due to the country’s proximity to Afghanistan and the opiates that are transported through central Asia. 

In 2006, cases of in-hospital HIV transmission to children were reported.

In December, 2016, three identities of HIV-positive women deported from Turkey as they allegedly were involved in sex worke were a disclosed by the media of Turkmenistan.

Sources:

http://www.azatturkmenistan.org/society/turkmenistan-devushki-nachali-privozit-spid-iz-zarubezhya.ht...

CIA World Factbook - Unless otherwise noted, information in this page is accurate as of June 30, 2015

http://www.unaids.org/en/regionscountries/countries/turkmenistan

https://www.unicef.org/turkmenistan/hiv_aids.html

http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/188766/Turkmenistan-HIVAIDS-Country-Profile-2011...


Last reviewed 01 June 2017

Last reviewed 01 June 2017

Last reviewed 01 June 2017